• 8th 十二月 2020
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  • 科技



We generally imagine aliens on a vaguelyEarth-like planet circling a distant star. We do not normally think of themliving out in space itself.我们一般来说想象外星人住在绕着很远的恒星运营,隐约像地球的行星上. 我们一般会指出他们住在太空之中.But maybe that is not such a ridiculousidea. In April 2016, researchers reported that some of the key building blocksof life can be produced from simple substances under harsh conditions mimickingthose of interstellar space.但也许这并非可笑的点子. 2016年4月, 研究人员报告说道, 关键的生命构件中, 有些可以从仿效星际空间的险恶环境里不存在的非常简单物质中产生.Cornelia Meinert at the University of Nice,France and colleagues showed that a mixture of frozen water, methanol andammonia – all compounds known to exist in the vast molecular cloudsfrom which stars form – can be transformed into a wide range of sugar moleculeswhen exposed to ultraviolet rays, which pervade space. The sugars includedribose, which is a part of the DNA-like molecule RNA.法国尼斯大学的科妮莉亚.迈纳特及其同事证明, 冻水, 甲醇和氨气的混合物受到笼罩太空的紫外线照射时,可转化成为各式各样的糖分子. 众所周知, 所有这些化合物不存在于浩翰的“分子云”中– 恒星从“分子云”中构成. 糖中包括核糖, 核糖是脱氧核糖核酸(DNA)样分子核糖核酸(RNA)的一部分.This suggests that the fundamentalmolecules of life might be formed in outer space, and then delivered to planetslike Earth by icy comets and meteorites.这指出, 基本的生命分子或可独自太空构成, 然后由结冰的彗星和流星传输至地球这样的行星.The finding points to an intriguingpossibility. L


ife itself might not have needed a warm and comfortable planetbathed in sunlight to get going. If the raw ingredients were already out therein interplanetary limbo, might life have started there too?这个找到似乎了一种有意思的可能性. 生命本身有可能并不需要洗浴在阳光中的寒冷舒适度的星球才能开始. 如果生命的原材料早已不存在于星际间的过渡性状态, 那么生命也许也从那儿开始的?Ideas about the origins of life do notoften consider this scenario. It is hard enough to figure out how life couldhave begun on the early Earth, let alone at temperatures close to absolute zeroand the near vacuum of interstellar space. Making the basic building blocks oflife, like sugars and amino acids, is the easy part. There are lots ofchemically plausible ways to do that, starting with the simple molecules foundin young solar systems.有关生命起源的思想经常不予考虑到这个场景. 要搞清楚生命在早期地球是如何开始的早已不够无以了, 更加别说在相似绝对零度和星际空间几近真空的情况下了. 生产糖类和氨基酸等基本的生命构件是较更容易的部分. 从早期的太阳系中找到的非常简单分子应从, 有很多种化学上不切实际的办法可以做这一点.The hard bit is persuading thesecomplicated molecules to assemble into something capable of life-sustainingprocesses like replication and metabolism. Nobody has ever done this, or comeup with a completely plausible way it might happen, in the nurturing environmentof a warm, rocky planet –let alone in space.难题在于使这些简单的分子组配成需要展开拷贝和新陈代谢等过程的物质. 没有人在寒冷的岩石行星的孕育环境中做到过这个, 或明确提出几乎不切实际的构建方法, 更加别说是在星际空间了.